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What is the difference between carbon monoxide poisoning and carbon dioxide poisoning
2022-07-03 17:16:36

In short, the poisoning principle is different
The affinity of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin is greater than that of oxygen. It will occupy hemoglobin and lead to hypoxia and death.
Carbon dioxide will combine with plasma, resulting in abnormal blood pH and inhibiting respiration.
In the words of ordinary people, acute carbon monoxide is poisoning death, and carbon dioxide is suffocation death
Carbon monoxide poisoning is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances inhaled through the respiratory tract. The poisoning mechanism is that the affinity of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin is 200~300 times higher than that of oxygen and hemoglobin. Therefore, carbon monoxide can easily combine with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, making hemoglobin lose its oxygen-carrying capacity and function, leading to tissue asphyxia. After carbon monoxide poisoning, it will have toxic effects on human tissues and cells, especially on the cerebral cortex. When people realize that carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it is often too late. Because the cerebral cortex that dominates human movement is paralyzed and damaged first, people cannot achieve purposeful autonomous movement. Therefore, people with carbon monoxide poisoning often cannot carry out effective self-rescue.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless and odorless gas, slightly heavier than air, and the content in the air is only 0.03%. Biological respiration, bacterial fermentation and organic combustion can produce carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide itself is non-toxic. The poisoning mechanism is
1。 Low concentration of carbon dioxide can stimulate the respiratory center, deepen and accelerate respiration. High concentration of carbon dioxide will inhibit and paralyze the respiratory center.
2. Because the diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide is 25 times that of oxygen, carbon dioxide can easily diffuse from the alveolus to the blood, leading to respiratory acidosis. Clinically, simple carbon dioxide poisoning is rare. The increase of carbon dioxide in the air is usually accompanied by the decrease of oxygen concentration. For example, vegetables and fruits stored in underground kilns produce carbon dioxide during breathing and consume oxygen at the same time. The poisoning caused by entering the cellar without taking protective measures is caused by high concentration of carbon dioxide and hypoxia.
The test shows that when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air with sufficient oxygen is 5%, it is harmless to human body; However, if the oxygen concentration is lower than 17% and the air contains 4% carbon dioxide, people may be poisoned. Hypoxia can cause pulmonary edema, brain edema, metabolic acidosis, electrolyte disorder, shock, hypoxic encephalopathy, etc. At low concentrations, it is a physiological irritant. When the content of this product in the air exceeds the normal value (0.03%), it can deepen and accelerate breathing; When the content is 1%, the respiratory volume of normal people can be increased by 25%; When the content is 3%, the respiratory volume increases by two times. However, when the content is 25%, it will paralyze the respiratory center and cause acidosis. Therefore, the inhalation concentration should not exceed 10% (under normal oxygen content)
Which scenarios are prone to carbon monoxide poisoning
daily life:
(1) Burning coal. Burning coal for heating, using charcoal hot pot, etc. Coal is easy to burn incompletely and produce a large amount of carbon monoxide. If the room is closed and the ventilation is not smooth, carbon monoxide poisoning is likely to occur
(2) Use gas water heater. Some families install gas water heaters in bathrooms. The gas didn't burn completely. If the time is too long, carbon monoxide is easy to accumulate. In addition, in cold weather, the windows are closed and the ventilation is not smooth, resulting in poisoning. The installation of water heater or furnace is not standard. For example, after connection and installation without permission, the gas heater is not checked and used by the gas company, or the gas heater with poor quality is used. When the furnace is burning, the furnace is blown out, the switch is incorrect, and the rubber hose is aging and falling off;
(3) Automobile exhaust. Some people like to sleep with the air conditioner in the car. At this time, when the car engine is idling, the gasoline is not fully burned, and a large amount of exhaust gas containing carbon monoxide will be produced. Exhaust gas enters the car through the air inlet of the car air conditioner, causing poisoning. Production site:
For enterprises that use coal and gas as raw materials, there is not enough ventilation space for carbon monoxide poisoning due to gas pipeline leakage, furnace door not closed tightly or furnace (tank) maintenance within a limited (closed) range during the production process
Which scenarios are prone to carbon dioxide poisoning
Biological respiration, bacterial fermentation and organic combustion will produce carbon dioxide. Simple carbon dioxide poisoning is rare in clinic. Unlike carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide itself is non-toxic. Common scenarios of carbon dioxide poisoning include:
1. Daily life:
(1) Unprotected access to vegetable cellars, drainage ditches, sewers, etc. that are not ventilated for a long time
2. Production site:
The production site is mainly the furnace (tank) body that enters the long-term unventilated mine, closed warehouse, ship bottom, etc., or the limited space or closed space that enters the long-term unventilated.